Browse NEET Free Study Material Sub-topics NEET was previously called AIPMT. Alkaloids and Uses (Download PDF) · Biogeochemical Cycles Youtube Lecture Handouts (Download PDF) · Biology Assertion Reason. Some of the recommendations are: AIPMT / NEET-UG Chapterwise Notes Get Free Study Material for NEET to (Previously Know. Download Free AIPMT BIOLOGY study material - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. APEX INSTITUTE has been .

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Free download NEET study material for Physics, Chemistry, Biology and start preparation for NEET exam with EtoosIndia, prepare by Kota's Faculty. NEET Books List For UG/ PG – Study Material. November 1 NEET Syllabus – Biology/Physics/Chemistry Free PDF [Download]. Get free NEET study material, NEET notes for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, along with NEET practice questions for every subject, NEET.

Discovered that genes are made up of D. Avery C. Introduced the term genetics iv Hugo de Vries D. Match the names of branches of science listed under Column I with the fields of study given under Column II. Choose the correct combination of alphabets: Mycology P. Study of bird B. Ornithology Q. Study of worms C. Herpetology R. Study of fishes D. Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A.

The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P. Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S. Philosophic Zoologique E.

Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F. Scientist associated with Indian Palaeobotany is: Maheswari 2 Birbal Sahni 3 M. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.

Scientist and antibiotics are: Choose the correct pair: Match the columns [Karnataka] Column I Column II a Palynology p Silkworms b Oncolohy q Pollen grain c Phycology r Cancer d Sericulture s Algae 1 a — s, b — r, c — q, d — p 2 a — q, b — r, c — s, d — p 3 a —s, b — q, c — r, d — p 4 a — r, b — q, c — s, d — p Prevention of deterioration of human race through reducing birth rate among defective individuals is [TNPCEE] 1 Positive euthenics 2 Negative euthenics 3 Negative euthenics 4 Positive euthenics Which one of the following sequence is correct: Match the columns and pick up the correct combination: Study of ants in: Branch of botany connected with food, fibre and wood yielding plants is: Acarology is study of: For solving a scientific problem which is not correct 1 Suaruta 2 Charaka 3 Dhanvantari 4 Atreya Science of engineering and technology which is applied to life sciences is: Match the column I and II and choose the correct answer: All living beings show: Bending of a shoot towards light is: Physical basis of life is: Fuelgen test is specific for: Which type of organisation is found in only living beings: Organisation formed by individuals of a species is: Number of chemicals found in living cell is: Which one is a micromolecule: Salt concentration of blood is: Glucose concentration of blood for normal body function is: Energy currency of a cell is: This is due to: During nerve conduction, electric energy is produced.

What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains …………. ACTH consists ………..

Hemocyanin of snail consists of ……….. An example of short term adaptation is — a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation. The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.

Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day?

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Hooker 5. Which of the following is connecting link between reptiles and birds? Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis? Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: This word was produced by A. Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms. New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism.

New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters.

Some Informations: Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. For eg.

Caryophyllum-Caryophyllum sexatilis folis gramineus unbellatis corymbis Binomial system: Linnaeus used this nomenclature system for the first time on large scale and proposed scientific name of all the plants and animals.

It was published on 1 May So this was the initiation of binomial system for plants. So any name proposed for plants before this date is not accepted today. So initiation of binomial system for animals is believed to be started on 1 Aug Principle of Priority: The nomenclature is done by principle of priority. If two names re proposed for any plant after the , the valid name is the earlier name proposed just after 1 May, Naja naja Indian cobra , Rattus rattus Rat 3 Length of generic name or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters.

Mangifera indica Exception - Riccia pathankotensis- More than 12 letters. According to ICBN this name is not valid but his name was proposed before , so it is valid. ICBN 4 First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter. Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter. Isoetes Pntti 5 When written with free hand or typed, then generic name sand specific name should be separately underlined.

But during name shold be italized. Mangifera indica Lin. Tsuga candensis Lin. Salisbury Note: Linnaeus names this plane as Pinus Canadensis 9 Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages.

Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based. Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype. Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype.

Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype. Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype.

Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype. It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species — eg. Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification.

The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.

For example: It has only one application: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i.

Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance. In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered. In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group.

In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg.

Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria. In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc.

Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i. In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters.

They have many dissimilarities. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification. In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities.

In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance. While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc. They are not regularly used.

They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy. In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology.

Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves. Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i. But these three can not interbreed among themselves.

Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation.

D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species. Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present.

Variations found in these members are permanent.

These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species. Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology. They are called as linneon species. They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species.

Those species in which variations are very less. They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations. Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species. Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species.

Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions. The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg.

Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils. Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently. It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants. B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc. C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope.

It is based on all the informations or data available about plants. D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy. Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels.

E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy.

It is based on the chemical constitution of plants. The fragrance and taste vary from species to species. The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc. F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes.

Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters. A Time - - B. B He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany.

D Theopharastus wrote many books on plants. Few of them are as follows a Historia plantarum B Causes of plants C Enquiry into plants E Theophratus gave names and descriptions of plants in his book Historia plntarum. F Theophrastus proposes the first classification of plant kingdom.

He classified plant kingdom in to four groups on the basis of growth habit - a Trees b Shrubs c Under shrubs d Herbs G It is artificial classification. H He proposed the term Annual, Biennial and Perennials. He was the Swedish scientist C He is known as father of taxonomy, father of plant taxonomy and father of animal taxonomy. D Linnaeus gave the two kingdom system classification. E Linnaeus wrote many books. Some important books are: In this book he gives the detailed description of animals kingdom.

De Candolle: On this basis of vascular tissue the classified plants into two groups a Cellular plants Non vascular plants - this group includes Thallophyta and Bryophyta b Vascular plants - This group includes Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms.

B Scientists working in botanical garden are known as curapor. In this boom Bentham and Hooker gave the biggest and natural classification of spermatophyta i. In it, basically the description of plant with seeds is present. Merits of Bentham and Hooker classification. This was very appreciable because floral characters are more stable than vegetative root, stem, leaves characters. Therefore the arrangement of all plants in the botanical gardens and herbarium of the world is based on it Although it is not the best classification but yet the arrangement of plants in botanical gardens and herbarius is based on it, because it is the simpler one.

The main reason for its simplicity is that this classification is based on actual observation. Demerits of Bentham and Hooker: The sequence of evolution is as follows: Sub-kingdom Cryptogamia Phanerogamia Plant without flower Plant with flower life stru.

Male gametes reach the female Two groups are include in this division gametes through pollen tube. A Proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. B This classification is the complete classification of plant kingdom. C This is the most acceptable classification for books and study. Tipoo does not use the word pteridophyta 9 Karl Menz: A he show the importance of secrelogy in taxonomy.

B Similarities and dissimilarities in stru. Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins. Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins. Phylogenetic relationship of plants and animals can be established by animal serum. Serology indicates that chimpanzee is closest relative of man. A Haeckel gave the three kingdom Protista, Planae, Animalia system of classification.

B Haeckel established the kingdom Protista. D Haeckel grouped those living organisms in Protista which did not have tissues. He gave the Four kingdom system of classification.

All the prokaryote are grouped in Monera ii Protista or prototista: Copleland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different that normal plants and animals. Brown algaem Red algae, Fungi Protozoa iii Plantae or metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped.

Remaining all eukaryotic animals re grouped. Whittaker A He gave the Five kingdom system of classification. B This classification was believed to be modern The five kingdom classification of Whittaker was based on 3 main characters a Complexity of cell: Cell is prokaryote or Eukaryote, on this basis, kingdom Monera is formed. And all the proykaryotes are grouped in to it. Organism in unicellular or multicellular, on this basis kingdom Protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it.

Organism in autotrophic or heterotrophic, on this basis kingdom Myctota. Planatae and Animalaia was formed. Except fungi heterotrophic all the plants are autotrophs.

Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom - Plantae. Since all the animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in fifth kingdom i. True fungi 4. Van Neil: Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Main characteristic of prokaryotes: Cell wall of prokaryotes is made up of peptidoglycan or murein which is a type of mucopeptide. The structure of peptidoglycan has two parts A Polysaccharides: They are made up of glucose, mannose, galacotse and amino sugar units.

Following amino acids are present in the cell wall of prokaryotes: Muramic acid - This acid is found in eubacteria and BGA 3. The structure of cell wall in prokaryotes is complicated and this is the primitive characster. Generally the cell wall of prokaryotes is not made up of cellulose but exceptionally there are some prokaryotes in which cell wall made up cellulose, which are as follows - eg.

Acetobacer acetogenum Acetobacter Xylenum Zymosarcina Prokayotes which are intra cellular lack cell wall e. Mycoplasma 2 Cell membrane: This space, is analogus to lysomome because in this space the digestion of complex substance is done. A The cytoplasm of prokaryotes lacks membrane bound cell organelles. B In Prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is indistinct. The nucleus of prokaryotes is also known as incipient nucleus, genophore, nucleiod or fibrillar nucleus.

Nuclear membrane is absent around nucleus. It also lacks nucleolus. Prokaryotes also lack the true chromosome. Non histone proteins are polyamines. This false chromosome coils and forms the chromosomal region, which is known as nucleoid. C Is prokaryotes ribosomes are of 70s type. There is no particular structure like cilia, flagella for locomotion.

Flagella are present in many prokaryotes for swimming. Eubacteria B Non motile prokaryotes - eg. He discovered the antiseptic nature of carbolic acid. Lister first of all cultured bacteria artificially. Pasteurisation technique - it is a process which means heating of drinks. On the basis of their shape bacteria are of different types. Coccus Pl. These are following types A.

Monocossus - These spherical bacteria live alone single sphere e. Micrococcus, Dialister pneumosintes B. Diplococcus - These are found in pair. Diplococcus pneumniae, Neisseria C. Tetra occurs - These are found in group of four cocci. Micrococcus luteus D. Streptococcus - These are found in form of chain e.

Streptococcus lactis E. Sarcinae - 8 to 64 or ore bacteria are found in cubical mass form e. Sarcina F.

Staphylococcus - These bacteria are found in a irregular bunch e. Staphylococcus alvus 2. Bacillus Pl. Bacilli - Sing. Single Bacillus - Only one rod -like structure or bacterium. Diplobacillus - They are found in pairs e. Diplobacillus C. Streptobacillus - They are found in a chain e. Bacillus anthracis Bacillus subtilis -It is surrounded by mucilagenous sheath that is known as zooglea.

It is also known as hay bacteria. Palisade bacillus - These roed shaped bacteria are found in form of stacks e.

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Corynebacterium diphtheriae 3. Spirillum Pl. Spirilli - Sing. Spirillum volutans, Spirochete, Helibacter, Treponema 4. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio comma 5. Caulobacter 6. Rhodomicrobium 7. Rhizobium Rhizobium bacterium is found in three forms X,T and Z Bacteria are motile as well as non motile. Movement in bacteria takes place by means of flagella.

On the basis of flagella bacteria are of following types 1. Atrichous - When flagella are absent, it is called atrocious form e. Micrococcus, Pasteurella 2. Monotrichous - When only one flagellum on one end of the bacterium e.

Vibrio, Thiobacillu, Pseudomonas 3. Lophotrichous - When a bunch of flagellum is present on one end of bacterium. Salmonella 4. Amphitrichous - When bunch of flagellum or single flagellum are present on both the ends of bacterium. Spirillu, Nitrosomonas 5. Peritichous - When flagella are found on the whole body of bacterium e. Salmonella typhi A flagellum of bacteria is made up of three parts. Basal body - A. It is the basal part of flagellum and rod shaped in structure.

It lies with in the cell wall and cell membrane C. This proteinaceous rod shaped structure is surrounded by two pairs of rings i Outer pair ii Inner pair D. Outer pair of ring lies with in the cell wall. One ring of this pair is called L and the another called P. Inner pair of ring lies with in the cell membrane. One ring of this pair is called S and the another is M. Hook - A. In connects the basal body to filament B. It is the middle part of glagellum C.

Filament - A. It is cylindrical hollow structure made up of protein monomers. Each omonomers is made up of flagellin protein. Flagellin is a contractile protein like the tubulin of eucaryotes. All monomers are joined with each other and so that in bacteria flagella in monofibrilla. Pili - 1.

Bacterial cell wall is covered by numerous hair like structures called pili. Pili are smaller than the flagella. They are of two types A Longer pili, B Shorter pili 3. These are absent in recipient bacteria or female. The shorter pili take part in attachment.

These are found only in pathogenic bacteria. Every pilus is cylindrical hollow structure and composed of protein monomeres. Each momomere is made up of pilin protein. Pilin is non-contractile protein. Pili have been reported only in Gram negative E.

Capsule of Glycocolyx or Slime layer - A. When bacteria is surrounded by capsule, it is called capsulated bacteria. Formation of capsule is done by cell membrane. Capsulated bacteria are mostly pathogenic. Capsule is made up of unknown polysaccharides and polypeptides. Capsule protects the bacteria from W. Cell Wall - Bacterial cell wall made up of mainly peptidoglycan or murein which is type of muco-peptide. It is made up of peptidoglycan.

Lipids are also present but in less quantity. While in Gram - bacteria cell wall is double layered. Inner layer is thin and composed of peptidoglycan while outer layer is thick and made up of lipopolysaccharide. Some quantity of lipoproteins and phospholipids are also present in outer layer. Proteins lipoprotein present in Gram negative bacteria are called porins and these proteins functions as channels for the entry and exit of hydrophilic low molecular weight substances.

Differences between Gram positive and Gram negative Bacteria Gram positive Gram negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The bacteria remain coloured purple with Gram staining even after washing with alcohol. Cell wall is single layered.

Cell wall of peptidoglycal is nm. A few pathogenic bacteria belong to Gram - positive group. The bacteria do not retain the stain when washed with alcohol. Cell wall is bilayered. Cell waw of peptidoglycan is nm. Wall is wavy and comes is contact with plasmalemma only at a few loci. Mesosomes are less prominent. Most of the pathogenic bacteria belong to Gram - negative group. L - form - Bacterial cell wall can be dissolved by lyzozyme enzyme. When bacterial cell wall is removed artificially then bacteria are surrounded by only cell membrane.

These bacteria are called L - form Lister form. Lister form - It is first development by Klieneberger in lister laboratory Londo. Cell membrane - Bacterial cell mem. Cytoplasm - A. In bacterial cytoplasm membrane bound cell organelles viz. Mitochondria, Chloroplast E. Lysosome, Golgibody, Microbodies etc.

Bacterial cytoplasm show no streaming or cyclosis. Cytoplasmic organelles - 1. Mesosomes - A. Mesosome was discovered by F. The cell membrane of bacteria ingeminates in cytoplasm at different places and form mesosome. These are functionally mitochondria like structure. Oxidative enzymes are found in mesosome. On the basis of position and function mesosomes are of two types. These are connected with nucleid.

Storage granules - A. Glycogen granuels - they store carbohydrate B. Volutin granuels - These are also known as metachromatic granules. They are made up pf RNA. They strode RNA as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Photosynthetic structure - Some eubacteria purple bacteria and green bacteria have capacity of photosynthesis. In photosynthetic eubacteria no special type of structure is found for photosynthesis.

In bacterial cytoplasm many photosynthetic pigments are scattered.

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The group of pigments are called chromatophores. Pigments - a In purple bacteria sulphur and non sulphur - bacteriochlorophyll-a and bacteriochlorophyll-b b In green sulphur bacteria - Bacteriochlorophyll-a and chlorobiumchlorophyll or bacterioviridin 4.

Chromatin material Nucleoid - A. Nucleus of bacterial cell is called nucleoid or genophore or incipient nucleus or fibrillar nucleus. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus are absent. The chromosomes are also absent in bacterial cells. Instead they contain a single chromosome.

It consists of a ds circular naked DNA without histone , and non histone proteins. Nucleoid is connected to mesosome. It is also known as extra chromosomal or extranuclear genetic material. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently.

On the basis of functions plasmids are of following types 1. Gram Staining technique: First of all H. Gram differentiated bacteria on the basos of staining. In the first step of this method bacteria are stained with Crystal Violet and then KI solution. After staining, bacteria are washed with Acetone or Ethyl alcohol.

After washing some bacteria retain the stain and some bacteria are decolourised. Gram - bacteria are counter stained by saffranine. Ziehl Neilson staining tech. In this method first of all bacteria are stained with the phenolic solution of basic fuschin carbol fuchsin and then washed with alcoholic solution of HCI or H 2 SO 4. Non acid fast bacteria are counter stained by methylene blue. Quantity of wax is more is acid fast and less in non acid fast Most of the bacteria are heterotrophic but some are autotrophic.

On the basis of nutrition bacteria are classified into following three categories. These bacteria use light or chemical energy for their own food synthesis. On the basis of hydrogen donor, photoautotrophs are further classified into following two categories. H 2 S, Thiosulphate. This category includes only two types of bacteria -Purple sulphur bacteria - e.

Chromatium - Green sulphur bacteria - e. Chlorobium, Thiothrix b Photo - organotrophs - Hydrogen donor is organic compounds viz. Isopropyl alcohol, amino acids, fatty acids. This category involves only one type bacteria. On the basis of oxidised compound chemoautorophs are further classified into following two Categories a Chemo-lithotrophs - These bacteria oxidise the inorganic compounds and release energy which is used for food synthesis. This category includes following types of bacteria.

Bacillus pentotrophus, Hydrogenomonas b Chemo - organotrophs - These bacteria oxidise the organic compounds and released energy is used for food synthesis.

They convert CH 4 into CO 2. Heterotrophs The are following types i Saprotrophic bacteria - These bacteria obtain food from dead and decarying organic matter. These are of two types. These are completely saprophytic. Bacillus vulgaris, Clostridium botulinum b Facultative parasite - These are normally saprophytic in nature, but in the absence of dead organic matter they can become parasite.

Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus ii Parasitic bacteria - They obtain their food from living organism These are of two types a Obligate parasite: They always remain parasitic.

Mycobacterium leprae b Facultative Saprotrophic - They are normally parasitic in nature but in the absence of living host, they may become saprophytic. Mycobacterium tuberculosis These bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds like Amino acid NO 3 or Salts of ammonia e.

Rhzobium On the basis of respiration bacteria are of two types These are of two types A Obligate aerobic - These are completely aerobic and die in the absence of O 2 eg. Azotabacter B Facultative anaerobic - These are normally aerobic bacteria but can survive in the absence of O 2 eg. Acetobacter aceti Clostridium tetani These are of two types. A Obligate annerobic - These are completely anaerobic bacteria and do not have capacity of aerobic respiration.

Clostridium botulinum B Facultative aerobic - These are normally anaerobic but also have capacity of aerobic respiration. Was discovered by Bisset and Hale in Bifidi bacterium. Genophore of bacterium replicates and one copy is transferred to the bud. Now due to the constriction at the place of bud formation, it separates from the bacterial cell and acts as a new bacterial cell. Binary fission takes place by amitosis. Amitosis is characteristic of procaryotes. Mitosis and Meiosis never occurs in procaryotes.

Under favourable conditions bacterial cell divide into two cells due to formation of trans verse septum in the centre of the cell. Each daughter cell grows into a new bacterium c Under favourable conditions, the cells of bacteria divides after every 20 minutes.

It is resistant to high temp. Core mem. Endospore formation is seen in mostly Bacillus type of bacteria. Bacterial cell secretes a thick wall around it self. Under favourable conditions protective layer breaks and bacterium becomes free. True sexual reproduction is absent in bacteria because it does not involve fusion of male and female gametes to produce a diploid zygote.

Genetic recombination involves transfer of some genes from a bacterium to another bacterium. There are three methods of genetic recombination. Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs. Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future. The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body.

Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases.

We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders. Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity. It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems.

Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body. A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals. With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops.

Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society. The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists.

Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e.

Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks.

Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e. In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine. Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy.

He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body. Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery. Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty. He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case.

Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts. He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed.

Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child. The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity.

Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies. His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution.

Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them. Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals.

Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals.

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Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function. Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood.

Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist. Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him. He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum.

Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature. Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things.

Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution. He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology. Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species.

His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century.

His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance.

According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules. Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist. Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations.

The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells. The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus. With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies.

Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism. Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus.

The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria. Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology. Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species. Schlieden the first statement on cell theory.

Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution of species. The concept of spontaneous origin of life was countered by Pasteur, who proposed the germ theory of disease. James D.

Watson and Francis H.Monotrichous - When only one flagellum on one end of the bacterium e. Single Bacillus - Only one rod -like structure or bacterium. A few pathogenic bacteria belong to Gram - positive group.

Science dealing with domestic fowls, such as chickens, Ducks and geese. Anybody in search of notes listed below please email me at r. Padhaku Keeda. It came 20 years later in when Louis Pasteur successfully refuted the concept of spontaneous origin of life. Study of bacteria. During chemical reactions electrons are transferred from one atom to another.