Principles of electronic communication systems / Louis E. Frenzel Jr. —Fourth edition. pages cm. Includes index. ISBN (alk. paper) — ISBN . Principles-of-Electronic-Communication-Systems-4th-Edition-Frenzel-Test-Bank. pdf. Uploaded by. Jjiak9 pzl. Download with Google Download with. Advanced Electronic Communications Systems Wayne Tomasi Sixth Edition Advanced Electronic Communication system/George Kennedy, Bernard Davis.
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1. Principles of Electronic. Communication Systems. Third Edition. Louis E. Frenzel, Jr. Basic Principles of Amplitude Modulation. ▫ Amplitude. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems 4th Ed __ Louis E Frenzel. pdf - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Communication Systems. Third Edition. Louis E. Frenzel, Jr. Most circuits in electronic communication are used to manipulate signals to produce a desired.
Principles of Electronic Communication Systems (Frenzel).txt
Telephones: standard, cordless, cellular. Two-way radio, fax machine, com puter modem. Digital or binary. The analog signals are converted into binary signals firs t.
Information or intelligence signals. Demodulation or de tection.
One that consists of a carrier modulated by one or mor e baseband signals. Multiple xing. Demultiple xing. Radio or wir eless. Electric or magnetic f ields. Antennas would be too long to be practical, signals would not travel far, all signals would interfere with one ano t her.
Yes, but only a few, usually military or gov ernment navig ation. Short w a ves. Two-way radio, TV, cellular telephone, radar, satellites. Microw a v e. Millimeter w a ves. It is used to express light w a v elengt h.
Infrared, visible, ultraviolet. Heated objects or LEDs and lasers. An angstrom is 10 — 10 m and is used to state light w a v elengt h. Free space and fiber-optic cable. High speeds are obtained by using a small modulation index and prefiltering the binary signal.
Number of coding levels and the transmission speed baud. Higher bps data rate. UART, scrambler, modulator, equalizer, line interface, adaptive receive equalizer, demodulator, descrambler, microcontroller. Modems are needed to convert digital signals to analog signals and vice versa to make them compatible with the standard voice-grade telephone system. Modems are used with any computer that must communicate with another computer over long distances using the telephone system.
A scrambler ensures that long strings of binary 0s or 1s are broken up into replacement codes with few successive 0 or 1 bits.
Balanced modulator. A carrier recovery circuit, usually a phase-locked loop. Differential BPSK. XNOR gate and a 1-bit delay flip-flop. Shift register. AM and PSK. Trellis code modulation is a form of QAM, used at data rates of bps or above, that incorporates a coding scheme that makes error detection and correction faster and easier. It is used because at faster data rates over the telephone system the bit error rate is much higher than at rates less than bps. The process of modifying an intelligence signal in such a way that its spectrum is spread over a wide frequency range rather than being confined to a narrow singlechannel bandwidth.
Frequency-hopping and direct-sequence SS. A frequency synthesizer. A pseudorandom sequence generator. Random background noise.
The identifying characteristic of a spread spectrum signal is the unique pseudorandom code being used. Dwell time. A shift register with XOR feedback or a specially programmed microcomputer. The PSN signal is a unique binary code sequence used for each station operating over a shared spectrum. It allows one station to be distinguished from another. Synchronizing the receiver to the desired signal.
Data security and resistance to jamming or interference from other signals. Cellular telephone, satellite, and radar.
Voice signals are converted to serial digital data before they are sent to the SS equipment. Code division multiple access CDMA. Redundancy, special codes, encoding methods, parity, block-check character, cyclical redundancy check.
Repeat the transmission until it is correctly received. Reed Solomon. Bit error rate BER. Parity bit. Block-check code, or BCC.
The corresponding bits in each word are added without carry to form the blockcheck character. Vertical redundancy check. XOR gate. Longitudinal redundancy check. A block of data is treated as if it were one very large binary number. It is divided by a smaller binary number called the generating function. The resulting quotient is abandoned, and the remainder is retained. The remainder is the CRC. A shift register with feedback through XOR gates.
A CRC is generated at the receiver using the received data block. It is then compared to the received CRC. If the two match, the data is correct.
The sum is zero , indicating no errors in a bit position. Trellis, Viterbi, turbo recursive codes. The last field in a protocol frame is usually a block check sequence or CRC for error detection.
A CRC word. Interoperability refers to the ability of one type of equipment to operate compatibly and communicate with the equipment of another manufacturer. Use protocols based on the OSI layers.
Applications, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, physical. Physical, data link, network, and applications. A temperature sensor such as a thermistor or resistive temperature device RTD monitors the temperature. This signal is serialized and packaged into a protocol packet by a microprocessor. It is then sent to modulate a low-power radio transmitter with antenna.
The receiving antenna picks up the signal and recovers the original digital signal, which is then put back into parallel form and sent to an interface on the computer. A program in the computer reads the data from the interface and stores it in memory. The program takes the data word and processes it so that it is displayed as the correct temperature on the video screen of the computer.
Cellular telephone. Many phones could share a common band simultaneously. The conversations would be secure and private. Remote controls for TV sets, garage doors, and car doors, radio-controlled airplanes or cars—all via AC power lines.
Spread spectrum and OFDM are spectrally efficient because the disperse the very high data rate signals over a broad spectrum that is typically less spectrum than other methods use for the same data rate.
B Chapter 12 Answers to Questions 1. To permit individual PCs to communicate, share peripherals, and exchange software. The MAN is smaller.
A cable TV network or a large company. About users per LAN. Star, ring, bus.
Ring and bus. The telephone system is a WAN. The fiber optic backbones of the Internet are WANs. Fiber optic cable. A SAN is a storage area network, a system made up of a redundant array of independent disks RAID or just a bunch of disks JBOD forming a storage facility for company or organization that can be accessed by servers and users via a high speed network.
Wireless is the normal medium used in a PAN. The main advantage of a mesh network is its reliability because of one node in the network is disabled or out of range an alternate path can be formed or taken to ensure communications. Coaxial cable is self-shielding and thus less subject to noise pickup.
AWG 22, 24, Network interface card. A transceiver or repeater. This reduces the load on the bus and collisions, thereby greatly improving transmission speed. A hub is a centralized connection point for attaching individual PCs to the network bus.
PoE means power over Ethernet. This is a variation of the Ethernet standard that permits DC power to be distributed over the twisted pair cable that carries the high speed data. Star in the newer systems. It is used because clock recovery is easy. Twisted pair and fiber optic cable.
Ethernet nodes complete contend for the bus. If one node transmits, no others can transmit until the first transmission is complete.
If two stations try to transmit at the same time, a collision occurs and both stations stop sending. They wait a random time and start The one waiting the shorter time captures the bus first.
Layers 1 and 2. Maximum range fiber optic cable 1 Gbps: 10km 10 Gbps: 40 km distance depends on the wavelength of the laser transmitters, shorter wavelengths and nm for the shorter distances and longer wavelength nm for the longer distances. Backbones connecting large LANs or small metro area networks. Makes clock recovery easier and permits implementation of error detection and correction.
Passive optical networks PON. Unshielded twisted pair UTP. A back plane is a printed circuit board that interconnects connectors into which other boards are plugged.
A router is an example. Four parallel lanes of 10 Gbps paths are combined to produce 40 Gbps. Ten 10 Gbps lanes are combined to produce a Gbps path. The line rate of a high speed path is different from the actual raw data rate because of the extra overhead bits of forward error correction codes added for reliability. Carrier Ethernet software. A data center is a facility with multiple servers, switches, and routers that form networks and facilitate network communications.
Factory automation, in which multiple computers controlling robots, machine tools, computer vision systems, and other equipment are usually networked. Number of nodes on the network, the amount of traffic or activity on the LAN, and the access method used. It takes longer to transmit the two extra bits and that slows the over transmission. Yes, a single fiber can support 40 Gbps or Gbps over shorter distances using NRZ or over longer distances using multiplexing or modulation methods. B Chapter 13 Answers to Questions 1.
Coaxial cable and open wire line. Coaxial cable is more widely used. Twin lead. PL, SO N-type connector. F connector.
LC low-pass filter. Surge impedance. Velocity factor is the ratio of the speed of a signal in a transmission line to the speed of light radio waves in free space. Since the speed of a signal in a transmission line is less than that in free space, the electrical wavelength of a transmission line is less than a wavelength or fraction thereof in free space.
Figure 7 B The cutoff frequency decreases with length. Constant value of voltage and current. All the power transmitted down the line from the generator is not absorbed by the load; therefore, some of the unabsorbed power is reflected back up the line toward the generator.
The transmitted power at the antenna is less than that applied to the transmission line by the transmitter because of cable attenuation as well as the loss of power due to reflection of power. Open and shorted at the end. Resonant line. Length does not affect SWR. Use an open quarter-wave or shorted half-wave line. They act as an inductive or capacitive reactance. One wavelength. Figure 8 Answers to Problems 1.
Open or shorted. See Fig. A single point at the center of the chart.The combination of a transmitter and a receiver in a single package that may share some circuits. Physical, data link, network, and applications.
An important characteristic of an inductor is the ratio of inductive power to resistive power referred to as its quality factor. The third, fifth, seventh, and higher harmonics will be greatly attenuated. Bessel C. Answers to Critical Thinking 1. Two-way radio, TV, cellular telephone, radar, satellites. Trellis, Viterbi, turbo recursive codes. Frequency-hopping and direct-sequence SS. PKE uses two keys one public and the other private.